The marijuana seed can be both inspiring and intimidating. Check out our guide to cannabis seeds before you start your first grow. What do weed seeds look like? Is there a difference between female and male seeds in appearance and how to see if a seed is healthy? Check it out! How do cannabis seeds work? Learn how to store your seeds, how long you can store them for, how to germinate them and their internal biology.
Cannabis Seeds 101: Your Intro Guide To The Marijuana Seed
If you’re thinking about diving into the world of growing, why not start from the ground up? Here’s an introduction course to cannabis seeds.
If you’re a wannabe pot grower, you need to be an expert on all things cannabis seeds. This knowledge needs to be gained before you even purchase your first marijuana seed in order to ensure a successful grow. While we’ve given guides on how to begin the plant process and how to see it through to a bountiful harvest, you may be seeking more information about the seed itself. And so, without further ado, here’s our intro course to cannabis seeds.
Basic Plant Biology
To put it in the most basic terms, a seed is a plant that is in its embryonic stage. Like animals, plants reproduce by, well, reproduction. The process actually isn’t totally dissimilar from that of animals. In order to produce a seed, a plant’s ovule (like an ovum, or egg) needs to be fertilized by pollen (similar to sperm).
Once the ovule is fertilized by the pollen, a seed is formed. Like an embryo, a seed contains a wealth of genetic material. Inside that one tiny object is the future of the organism. And like animals, the fate and final outcome of the seed is almost entirely dependent on how you treat it in its early stages of development. Here’s how to set up your baby, er, cannabis plant, for health and success.
How To Germinate Cannabis Seeds
Before you plant your seeds, you’re going to want to germinate them. What is germination? It’s basically a process by which seeds become hydrated. When they are hydrated, the enzymes in them become activated and ready to grow. When a seed is properly and completely germinated, the beginning of a root emerges from the seed’s shell.
So how do you germinate your cannabis seeds? First, you have to determine whether or not your seed is even viable. According to the experts, an ideal marijuana seed should be dark in color with black stripes. If you have seeds that look like that, great! Germination should be successful. There are a few methods of germination, but the easiest one is the paper towel method. Simply put your seeds between two damp paper towels on top of a flat surface, like a tray, and keep that on top of a warm surface. A root should break through the seed in just a few days.
If a root isn’t showing up in the expected time, you may need to stick it in some water for a day or so. This will help soften up the exterior of the shell and make it easier for the root to emerge.
What is a Feminized Marijuana Seed?
You may have heard the term “feminized marijuana seed”. But do you know what it means? According to our very own cannabis strain expert, Danny Danko, “feminized seeds are the result of using “male” pollen from a hermaphroditic plant to fertilize a female flower, resulting in plants that can be female or hermaphrodites but never males.”
Are Cannabis Seeds Legal?
Okay, so now you know the basics of what seeds are and how to begin the planting process. Feeling inspired and planning your grow operation already? Great! But first thing’s first. You have to buy some. But where? Since cannabis is federally illegal, surely the embryonic form of cannabis is prohibited as well, right? Not necessarily. If you reside in a state with either legal recreational weed or a medical marijuana program, chances are, you will be able to purchase seeds without any issue. However, some medical marijuana programs do not allow the purchase or possession of cannabis seeds for home growing. So make sure you do your research regarding your state’s medical marijuana program or recreational cannabis laws.
Buying A Marijuana Seed Supply
Once you’ve done your research and you have determined that yes, buying cannabis seeds is totally legal, the next step is to actually make your purchase. So where do you buy them? More to the point, where do you buy quality seeds? Your best bet is making the purchase at your dispensary. You’ll have the peace of mind knowing that your seeds will be high quality. And if you need guidance on what kind of seeds to buy (ie what strain would work well in whatever environment or climate you live in), the people working in the dispensary should be able to help you out.
It might be tempting to buy your seeds online. You’ve probably seen ads for websites claiming to sell superior seeds at an attractively low price. We strongly recommend that you do not fall into this trap. As with many things, keep the motto “buyer beware” in mind. Purchasing anything online has its risks. But cannabis seeds are particularly tricky because of the federal prohibition. Where you buy your seeds is ultimately up to you. But we recommend that you make your purchase at a dispensary or a trusted friend or colleague.
Storing Your Seed
Once you determine the legality of cannabis seeds in your state, have figured out what kind of cannabis you want to grow and have purchased your marijuana seed of choice, what’s next? You’re going to have to store your seed. But what is the optimal way to do this?
It is ideal to store them before germination. To do this, you’ll need an airtight container that is either opaque or dark colored. Keep your marijuana seed in this container and then store the container in a cool, dry and dark area. To ensure absolute dryness, some cannabis growers like to stick one or two packets of food-grade desiccants in the container as well. If those kinds of chemicals scare you, however, some dry rice to soak up any potential moisture can work too.
Final Hit: What Do You Do With Your Cannabis Seeds?
So what do you once your seed supply is successfully germinated? It may just be time to plant it and begin the next phase of your cannabis grow process! This next phase involves choosing the right growing medium for your needs, the right environment (like a grow box or greenhouse) and the best grow lights (if you’re growing indoors) to ensure healthy plants.
What Do Weed Seeds Look Like?
It’s important to know what to expect and what to look out for before you buy cannabis seeds. In addition to important factors such as sufficient water, nutrients and light quality, a successful crop starts with high quality healthy cannabis seeds. But how do you determine whether a cannabis seed is healthy, viable and of high quality?
The quality of a seed can be partially assessed by looking at the appearance. However, you have to know what a healthy cannabis seed looks like and that can be difficult. Even for the experienced grower. In this blog we therefore answer various questions such as: what do weed seeds look like and how can you see if a cannabis seed is healthy and viable?
What do female weed seeds look like?
Some people believe you can see the gender of the strain based on the appearance of the seeds. Well, we can tell you that ain’t possible. Both female and male seeds look exactly the same.
Curious how healthy cannabis seeds look? Continue reading!
What do healthy cannabis seeds look like?
Healthy cannabis seeds are sufficiently matured and therefore have a different appearance than unripened cannabis seeds. For example, viable cannabis seeds meet a number of criteria. Think of the size and shape, hardness of the outside and color.
Color of the cannabis seed
Fertile cannabis seeds are black, dark brown, red-brown or gray with a shiny glow as if there is a bit of wax on the peel. Cannabis seeds with a different color such as white, yellow or light green will probably also germinate, but indicate lesser quality. Such seeds have been harvested too early and haven’t had enough time to ripen.
Although it isn’t always visible with the blind eye, on a quality cannabis seed you can see a pattern of “tiger stripes” or dark spots.
Shape and size of a cannabis seed
Cannabis seeds have a unique shape. They are oval, have the shape of a drop and are small in size. On average, a cannabis seed is about 2 to 5 mm long and 2 to 3 mm thick. If you want to know what you can expect in advance, then we can advise you to take a look at the seeds of a tomato.
Hardness of the peel
A well ripened cannabis seed had sufficient time for hardening its shell. Healthy cannabis seeds are therefore provided with a hard smooth skin without cracks. You can test the hardness of the shell by taking the seed between your fingers and applying gentle pressure. Immature seeds will easily crack or crumble while qualitative cannabis seeds won’t damage.
Note: the moisture from your fingers can damage the seed. Please use linen gloves to prevent this.
To test the viability of a seed you can place the seed in a glass with distilled water. Seeds that sink within 2 hours have sufficient mass. These seeds generally have a better chance of sprouting than seeds that still float.
Note: this test isn’t 100% accurate and only provides an indication of the viability. In addition, the water will activate the germination process. Therefore, only carry out this test if you want to germinate the seed immediately. After performing the float test, you can’t longer store the seed.
Buy healthy cannabis at Weedseedsexpress
You can buy high quality healthy cannabis seeds with a high viability through a professional seed bank. Whether you buy cannabis seeds via Weedseedsexpress or another seed company, do your research. Like other respected seed banks, we have a reputation that we are frugal on. That is why you only find high quality marijuana seeds at Weedseedsexpress.
How do Cannabis Seeds Work
How do cannabis seeds work? You might not think that this is important, but knowing how seeds work can give you important insight on how to store them and what the germination profess involved. Cannabis seeds are technically small, oval-shaped dried fruit, around 3-4mm long and 1.5-2mm wide. They’re covered in a very subtle membrane, and underneath that layer there’s a much harder layer which is the largest system of the embryo, covering it and protecting it.
On the inside of the seeds you can find a substance called albumen, which is a nutritional reserve that keeps the embryo healthy until germination; it’s also the seeds initial source of energy once it begins germinating.
Now, for the center of the seed, home to the precious embryo from which your new plant will grow from. It contains the plant’s genetic code alongside four other parts; the radicle, the hypocotyl, cotyledons and gemmules. The radicle is the embryonic root; this is the part of the seed where roots come from. The hypocotyl is known as the embryonic stage, and the cotyledons are in charge of those first few leaves that you can see once the seed germinates.
Cannabis seeds, just like many other plant seeds, grow in pollinated flowers on female plants; seeds only contain the plant’s genetic code, so they don’t have any of the active principals in the plant, meaning that if you were to smoke it you wouldn’t get any sort of psychoactive or medicinal effect. They can be eaten however, as they provide an enormous amount of beneficial proteins, including Omega 3, 6 and 9. The aroma that comes from the seeds when burning isn’t pleasant at all, and if you’ve ever been smoking a joint that had a random seed in it then you know exactly what I’m talking about; they taste like some sort of burnt barbecue that ruins the taste of even the best, strongest tasting weed out there.
Germinating seeds correctly depends on different factors; the main one being how mature the seed is. Seeds that look too white, green or the skin seems to be coming off or not there at all tend to be too young still, although there are seeds of this stature that will germinate perfectly, depending on the strain. Strains like Somango, or hybrids that come from it, and Haze seeds are some of the whitest seeds you can find on the market; sativa seeds tend to be much smaller than indica seeds, like Thai seeds are generally much smaller than afghan seeds. In this case, size doesn’t matter at all; if a seed is smaller than others that doesn’t mean that it’s going to have issues germinating or that it will grow smaller plants. Smaller seeds generally have less protection, but they’re much easier to germinate. Seeds can take between 3-18 days to germinate depending on the conditions such as temperature, humidity, substrate composition etc. The longer the seeds take to germinate, the less likely that they are going to germinate. Sometimes if after a while it still hasn’t germinated, you can gently squeeze the seed to break the outer shell and if done right, you can help the root to leave the shell; if done wrong, you’ll end up completely squishing the seed and any chances of germination that it had.
During the time the seed is maturing various factors need to occur for the seed to be able to germinate in the best conditions. Seeds have a germination period of three years, which is the average time estimated that seeds can be kept in good conditions; it’s not the same to keep your seed in a fresh, dry area than in a hot and humid one. Humid areas will damage seeds, stimulating their metabolism with the humidity without stimulating germination which could even kill the seed off entirely. Water absorption is due to the water potential difference between the seed and its surroundings. Water reaches the embryo through all of the layers of the seed, which then activates the development of the radicle; once this process begins, seeds need more oxygen than water, so giving your seeds too much water might in fact “drown” them. This is why we highly recommend not germinating your seeds in glasses of water, as the oxygen-water ratio is nowhere near optimal for germination.
By lowering oxygen levels as well as temperature storage levels you can increase the life-span of your seed for up to 20 years. Another storage technique is to dehydrate the seeds around 2-5%; no more is recommended as it might affect the internal constitution of the seed. Temperature is extremely important as it regulates the activity of the enzymes during germination; during storage, temperature regulates the embryos metabolism.
Oxygen is found in nature in a concentration of about 21%; seeds tend to germinate in conditions with around 20-21% oxygen, and hardly any seeds can germinate with a lower concentration than that; the only plants that can really do that are marine plants and algae, which need 8% oxygen.
Now that you know how cannabis seeds work, you can store your babies for up to 20 years if you want to, and give them the perfect conditions in which to open up their shells and let the radicle take over growing the roots. Happy growing!